The internal hard drive in a MB Pro 13" wasn't even seen by the OS, yet would work in a external drive enclosure. Installing a new drive was at least seen by the OS but it couldn't partition it. I read several Apple discussions about the cause likely being a faulty drive cable.
The repair was very simple and went smoothly. It fixed the problem and the drive works perfectly now. This is the first time I've seen an internal drive cable go bad.
The SATA connector on the original cable did feel loose and too easily attached to the hard drive, which did make me a little suspicious.